This post was co-authored by the rOpenSci Editorial Board: Noam Ross, Scott Chamberlain, Karthik Ram, and Maëlle Salmon.

rOpenSciAt rOpenSci, we create and curate software to help scientists with the data life cycle. These tools access, download, manage, and archive scientific data in open, reproducible ways. Early on, we realized this could only be a community effort. The variety of scientific data and workflows could only be tackled by drawing on contributions of scientists with field-specific expertise.

With the community approach came challenges. How could we ensure the quality of code written by scientists without formal training in software development practices? How could we drive adoption of best practices among our contributors? How could we create a community that would support each other in this work?

We have had great success addressing these challenges via the peer review. We draw elements from a process familiar to our target community – academic peer review – and a practice from the software development world – production code review – to create a system that fosters software quality, ongoing education, and community development.

An Open Review Process

Production software review occurs within software development teams, open source or not. Contributions to a software project are reviewed by one or more other team members before incorporation into project source code. Contributions are typically small patches, and review serves as a check on quality, as well as an opportunity for training in team standards.

In academic peer review, external reviewers critique a complete product – usually a manuscript – with a very broad mandate to address any areas they see as deficient. Academic review is often anonymous and passing through it gives the product, and the author, a public mark of validation.

We blend these approaches. In our